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BST First Aid – Treat a Heat Injury

 Treat a Heat Injury

  Training Support Package (TSP) for the Marine Battle Skills Test (BST)

 

TASK: Treat a heat injury

CONDITION: Given a heat casualty

STANDARD: To prevent further injury or death

ESTIMATED TIME TO TRAIN: 10 minutes

ESTIMATED TIME TO EVALUATE: 2 minutes per Marine

 PERFORMANCE STEPS: 
  1. Describe how to identify types and symptoms of heat injury
  2. Describe how to perform corrective measures
REFERENCES: 
  1. Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support, Military Version, Current Edition
SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS: NA

PERFORMANCE STEP 1: Identify types and symptoms of heat injury.

  1. Heat Cramps: Muscles begin to cramp when there is an imbalance of chemicals (called electrolytes) in the body due to excessive sweating. Symptoms for heat cramps:
  1. Muscle cramping usually in the arms, legs or abdomen
  1. Heat Exhaustion: Caused by loss of water through sweating without adequate fluid replacement. Symptoms of heat exhaustion:
  1. Weakness or extreme fatigue
  2. Headache, dizziness, confusion, or nausea
  3. Wet clammy/cool skin
  4. Unsteady while standing
  1. Heat Stroke: The most emergent and life threatening form of heat illness. It is caused when the body can no longer cool itself and body’s temperature begins to rise. Immediate action is required. Symptoms of heat stroke are:
  1. The casualty’s skin is hot, red and dry
  2. The person experiences dizziness and confusion
  3. Headaches and seizures are possible
  4. Nausea is a common sign
  5. Respiration and pulse may be fast but weak
  6. Unconsciousness or combativeness

PERFORMANCE STEP 2: Perform corrective measures.

  1. Heat Cramps: Corrective actions/treatment for heat cramps:
  1. Move to a shady area or improvised shade
  2. Loosen the clothing
  3. Slowly drink at least one canteen of water or sports drink
  4. Seek medical aid should cramps continue
  1. Heat Exhaustion: Corrective actions for heat exhaustion:
  1. Move to a cooler location, shady area or improvise shade
  2. Loosen or remove clothing and boots
  3. Pour water on the head and upper body and fan
  4. Slowly drink athletic drinks diluted to half strength or fluids with sodium/salt content
  5. Monitor the casualty until the symptoms are gone. If the symptoms persist, seek medical aid
  1. Heat Stroke: Corrective action for heat stroke:
  1. Seek medical aid immediately
  2. Move casualty to a cool shady area or improvised shade
  3. Remove outer garments and/or protective clothing
  4. Immerse in cool/cold water, or pour water on the casualty and/or continuous fanning
  5. Have the casualty slowly drink water (if conscious)
  6. Evacuate the casualty to a medical treatment facility as soon as possible

 

 

 

 

Treat a heat injury

Evaluation Checklist

 

MARINE TRAINED:

EVALUATOR(S):

DATE:

SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS: N/A

EVALUATOR NOTE:  Marines must perform all the steps below without omitting key elements in order to pass this event.  The Marine does not have to identify every symptom and first aid measure listed in the instructor notes. The evaluator will guide the Marine through the checklist by asking questions.

 

Performance Step Instructor Notes Pass or Remediate
     
2. Describe the types and symptoms for each heat injury. Marine should state all three types of heat injuries and be able to differentiate based on the symptoms:

 

Heat Cramps:

1. Muscle cramping usually in the arms, legs or

abdomen

 

Heat Exhaustion:

1.     Wet clammy/cool skin

2.     Headache, dizziness, confusion, or nausea

3.     Weakness or extreme fatigue

4.     Unsteady while standing

 

Heat Stroke:

1.     The casualty’s skin is hot, red and dry

2.     The person experiences dizziness and confusion

3.     Headaches and seizures are possible

4.     Nausea is a common sign

5.     Respiration and pulse may be fast but weak

6.     Unconsciousness or combativeness

 
3. Perform corrective measures Marine should state four of the corrective measures:

1.     Move to a shady area or improvised shade

2.     Loosen the clothing

3.     Slowly drink at least one canteen of water or sports drink

4.     Pour water on the head and upper body and fan

5.     Immerse in cool/cold water

6.     Seek immediate medical attention in the case of heat stroke

 

Treat a Heat Injury  Training Support Package (TSP) for the Marine Battle Skills Test (BST)